|3/2016 - 12|
An Ultra-light PRNG Passing Strict Randomness Tests and Suitable for Low Cost TagsOZCANHAN, M. H. , UNLUTURK, M. S. , DALKILIC, G.
|Click to see author's profile in SCOPUS, IEEE Xplore, Web of Science|
|Download PDF (772 KB) | Citation | Downloads: 374 | Views: 1,777|
information security, radio frequency identification, random number generation, RFID tags, ubiquitous computing
rfid(15), security(9), random(8), link(7), lightw(7), authentication(7), systems(5), pseudorandom(5), lopez(5), generator(5)
Blue keywords are present in both the references section and the paper title.
About this article
Date of Publication: 2016-08-31
Volume 16, Issue 3, Year 2016, On page(s): 81 - 90
ISSN: 1582-7445, e-ISSN: 1844-7600
Digital Object Identifier: 10.4316/AECE.2016.03012
Web of Science Accession Number: 000384750000012
SCOPUS ID: 84991069460
A pseudo-random number generator for low-cost RFID tags is presented. The scheme is simple, sequential and secure, yet has a high performance. Despite its lowest hardware complexity, our proposal represents a better alternative than previous proposals for low-cost tags. The scheme is based on the well-founded pseudo random number generator, Mersenne Twister. The proposed generator takes low-entropy seeds extracted from a physical characteristic of the tag and produces outputs that pass popular randomness tests. Contrarily, previous proposal tests are based on random number inputs from a popular online source, which are simply unavailable to tags. The high performance and satisfactory randomness of present work are supported by extensive test results and compared with similar previous works. Comparison using proven estimation formulae indicates that our proposal has the best hardware complexity, power consumption, and the least cost.
|References|||||Cited By «-- Click to see who has cited this paper|
| C. M. Robert, "Radio frequency identification," Computers and Security, vol. 25, pp. 18-26, 2006. |
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 248] [SCOPUS Times Cited 360]
 R. Das, P. Havrop, "RFID forecasts, players and opportunities 2011-2021," IDTechEX, 2011. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
 P. Peris-Lopez, J. C. Hernandez-Castro, J. M. Esteves-Tapiador, A. Ribagorda, "LAMED a PRNG for EPC Class-1 Generation-2 RFID Specification," Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 31, pp. 88-97, 2009.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 48] [SCOPUS Times Cited 75]
 A. Manzalini, et al. "Self-optimized cognitive network of networks," The Computer Journal, vol. 54, pp. 189-195, 2011.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 7] [SCOPUS Times Cited 19]
 H. Y. Chien, "SASI: A New Ultralightweight RFID authentication protocol providing strong authentication and strong integrity," Trans. on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 4, p. 337-340, 2007.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 238] [SCOPUS Times Cited 342]
 P. Peris-Lopez, J. C. Hernandez-Castro, J. M. Esteves-Tapiador, A. Ribagorda, "An ultra-light authentication protocol resistant to passive attacks under the Gen-2 specification," J. of Information Science and Engineering, vol. 25, pp. 33-57, 2009
 J. H. Kong, L. M. Ang, K. P. Seng, "A comprehensive survey of modern symmetric cryptographic solutions for resource constrained environments," J. of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 49, pp. 15-50, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 23] [SCOPUS Times Cited 26]
 ISO/IEC 18000-6:2010, 2010. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
 Class-1 generation 2 UHF air interface protocol standard "Gen-2", Version 2.0.0, 2013. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
 H. Martin, et al. "AKARI-x: A pseudorandom number generator for secure lightweight systems," in Proc. 17th Int. On-Line Testing Symposium (IOLTS), pp. 228-233, 2011.
 M. Park, J. C. Rodgers, D. P. Lathrop, "True random number generation using CMOS Boolean chaotic oscillator," Microelectronics J., vol. 46, pp. 1364-1370, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 11] [SCOPUS Times Cited 17]
 D. E. Holcomb, W. P. Burleson, K. Fu, "Power-Up SRAM state as an identifying fingerprint and source of true random numbers," Transactions on Computers, vol. 58, pp. 1198-1210, 2009.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 268] [SCOPUS Times Cited 378]
 J. M. Segui, J. G. Alfaro, J. H. Joancomarti, "Analysis and improvement of a pseudorandom number generator for EPC Gen2 tag," in Proc. Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2010 Workshops, pp. 34-46, 2010.
 J. Chen, A. Miyaji, H. Sato, C. Su, "Improved lightweight pseudo-random number generators for the low-cost RFID tags," in Proc. IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA, vol. 1, pp. 17-24, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 3] [SCOPUS Times Cited 6]
 P. Z. Wieczorek, "Lightweight TRNG based on multiphase timing of bistables," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 63, pp.1043-1054, 2016.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 7] [SCOPUS Times Cited 10]
 A. J. Menenez, P. C. Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, Pseudorandom bits and sequences. Handbook of Applied Cryptography CRC Press, pp. 169-187, 1996.
 B. Alomair, L. Lazos, R. Poovendran. "Passive attacks on a class of authentication protocols for RFID," in Proc. Int. Conf. on Information Security and Cryptology - ICISC'07, pp. 102-115, 2007.
 M. Matsumoto, T. Nishimura, "Mersenne twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudo-random number generator," Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, vol. 8, pp. 3-30, 1998.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 3187]
 M. Matsumoto, et al. Cryptographic Mersenne twister and Fubuki stream/block cipher, 2005. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
 F. Panneton, P. LEcuyer, M. Matsumoto, "Mersenne twister: improved long-period generators based on linear recurrences modulo 2," Transactions on Mathematical Software, vol. 32, pp. 1-16, 2006.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 109] [SCOPUS Times Cited 132]
 N. Saxena, J. Voris, "Data remanence effects on memory-based entropy collection for RFID systems," Int. J. of Information Security, vol. 10, pp. 213-222, 2011.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 2] [SCOPUS Times Cited 3]
 A. P. Sample, et al. "Design of an RFID-based battery-free programmable sensing platform," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement vol. 57, pp. 2608-2615, 2008.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 344] [SCOPUS Times Cited 467]
 D. Khovratovich, I. Nikolic, "Rotational cryptanalysis of ARX," Fast Software Encryption, pp. 333-346, 2010.
 R. Sedgewick. Algorithms in C, Parts 1-5 (Bundle): Fundamentals, Data Structures, Sorting, Searching, and Graph Algorithms, 3/e, Addison-Wesley Professional, pp: 55-86, 2002.
 M. Feldhofer, S. Dominikus, J. Wolkerstorfer, "Strong authentication for RFID systems using the AES algorithm," in Proc. Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems-CHES 2004, pp. 357-370, 2004.
 A. Moradi, A. Poschmann, "Lightweight cryptography and DPA countermeasures: a survey," in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 68-79, 2010.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 28]
 C. Paar, A. Poschmann, M. J. B. Robshaw, "New designs in lightweight symmetric encryption," RFID Security: Techniques, Protocols and System-on-Chip Design, pp. 349-371, 2009.
 P. Peris-Lopez, P. T. Lim, T. Li, "Providing stronger authentication at a low-cost to RFID tags operating under the EPCglobal framework," in Proc. Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing Conference, pp. 159-167, 2008.
 M. Feldhofer, J. Wolkerstorfer, "Hardware implementation of symmetric algorithms for RFID security," RFID Security: Techniques, Protocols and System-on-Chip Design, vol. 3, pp. 373-415, 2009.
 H. Martin, P. Periz-Lopez, J. E. Tapiador, E. San Millan, "An estimator for the ASIC footprint area of lightweight cryptographic algorithms," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, pp. 1216-1225, 2014.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 5] [SCOPUS Times Cited 6]
 H. Martin, E. San Millan, P. Periz-Lopez, J. E. Tapiador, "Efficient ASIC implementation and analysis of two EPC-C1G2 RFID authentication protocols," Sensors, vol. 13, pp. 3537-3547, 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 16] [SCOPUS Times Cited 16]
 J. Melia-Segui, J. Garcia-Alfaro, J. Herrera-Joancomarti, "Multiple-polynomial LFSR based pseudorandom number generator for EPC Gen2 RFID tags," in Proc. 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 3820-3825, 2011.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 19]
 J. Walker. Randomness battery, 1998. [Online]. Available: http://www.fourmilab.ch/random/.
 G. Marsaglia, T. Marsaglia, "Random number CDROM including the DIEHARD battery of tests of randomness, Diehard version 1," 1996. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
 P. Kohlbrenner, K. Gaj, "An embedded true random number generator for fpgas," Proc. 12th International symposium on Field programmable gate arrays, pp. 71-78, 2004.
 A. Rukhin, et al. A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications, 2010. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
 J. Melia Segui, "Lightweight PRNG for low-cost passive RFID security improvement," Doctoral thesis, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2011. [Online] Available: Temporary on-line reference link removed - see the PDF document
Web of Science® Citations for all references: 1,329 TCR
SCOPUS® Citations for all references: 5,091 TCR
Web of Science® Average Citations per reference: 35 ACR
SCOPUS® Average Citations per reference: 134 ACR
TCR = Total Citations for References / ACR = Average Citations per Reference
We introduced in 2010 - for the first time in scientific publishing, the term "References Weight", as a quantitative indication of the quality ... Read more
Citations for references updated on 2019-08-18 15:04 in 119 seconds.
Note1: Web of Science® is a registered trademark of Clarivate Analytics.
Note2: SCOPUS® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.
Disclaimer: All queries to the respective databases were made by using the DOI record of every reference (where available). Due to technical problems beyond our control, the information is not always accurate. Please use the CrossRef link to visit the respective publisher site.
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania
All rights reserved: Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is a registered trademark of the Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, photocopied, recorded or archived, without the written permission from the Editor. When authors submit their papers for publication, they agree that the copyright for their article be transferred to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania, if and only if the articles are accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints and translations.
Permission for other use: The copyright owner's consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific written permission must be obtained from the Editor for such copying. Direct linking to files hosted on this website is strictly prohibited.
Disclaimer: Whilst every effort is made by the publishers and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions or statements appear in this journal, they wish to make it clear that all information and opinions formulated in the articles, as well as linguistic accuracy, are the sole responsibility of the author.