Click to open the HelpDesk interface
AECE - Front page banner



JCR Impact Factor: 0.650
JCR 5-Year IF: 0.639
Issues per year: 4
Current issue: Aug 2019
Next issue: Nov 2019
Avg review time: 70 days


Stefan cel Mare
University of Suceava
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science
13, Universitatii Street
Suceava - 720229

Print ISSN: 1582-7445
Online ISSN: 1844-7600
WorldCat: 643243560
doi: 10.4316/AECE


2,306,744 unique visits
Since November 1, 2009

No robots online now


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Anycast DNS Hosting

 Volume 19 (2019)
     »   Issue 3 / 2019
     »   Issue 2 / 2019
     »   Issue 1 / 2019
 Volume 18 (2018)
     »   Issue 4 / 2018
     »   Issue 3 / 2018
     »   Issue 2 / 2018
     »   Issue 1 / 2018
 Volume 17 (2017)
     »   Issue 4 / 2017
     »   Issue 3 / 2017
     »   Issue 2 / 2017
     »   Issue 1 / 2017
 Volume 16 (2016)
     »   Issue 4 / 2016
     »   Issue 3 / 2016
     »   Issue 2 / 2016
     »   Issue 1 / 2016
  View all issues  


Electrical Signature Analysis for Condition Monitoring of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine, SALOMON, C. P., FERREIRA, C., LAMBERT-TORRES, G., TEIXEIRA, C. E., BORGES DA SILVA, L. E., SANTANA, W. C., BONALDI, E. L., DE OLIVEIRA, L. E. L.
Issue 4/2018


HPOFS: A High Performance and Secured OpenFlow Switch Architecture for FPGA, PHAM-QUOC, C., NGO, D.-M., THINH, T. N.
Issue 3/2019


Rule-Based Turkish Text Summarizer (RB-TTS), BIRANT, C. C., AKTAS, O.
Issue 3/2018


Testing of a Hybrid FES-Robot Assisted Hand Motor Training Program in Sub-Acute Stroke Survivors, GRIGORAS, A. V., IRIMIA, D. C., POBORONIUC, M. S., POPESCU, C. D.
Issue 4/2016


Impact of Photovoltaic Systems Placement, Sizing on Power Quality in Distribution Network, YMERI, A., MUJOVIC, S.
Issue 4/2018


A Proposal of a Novel Method for Generating Discrete Analog Uniform Noise, PEJIC, D., GAZIVODA, N., LICINA, B., UREKAR, M., SOVILJ, P., VUJICIC, B.
Issue 3/2018



Clarivate Analytics published the InCites Journal Citations Report for 2018. The JCR Impact Factor of Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is 0.650, and the JCR 5-Year Impact Factor is 0.639.

Starting today, the minimum number a pages for a paper is 8, so all submitted papers should have 8, 10 or 12 pages. No exceptions will be accepted.

Clarivate Analytics published the InCites Journal Citations Report for 2017. The JCR Impact Factor of Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is 0.699, and the JCR 5-Year Impact Factor is 0.674.

Thomson Reuters published the Journal Citations Report for 2016. The JCR Impact Factor of Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is 0.595, and the JCR 5-Year Impact Factor is 0.661.

Read More »


  3/2018 - 3

Adaptive LSB Steganography Based on Chaos Theory and Random Distortion

TUTUNCU, K. See more information about TUTUNCU, K. on SCOPUS See more information about TUTUNCU, K. on IEEExplore See more information about TUTUNCU, K. on Web of Science, DEMIRCI, B. See more information about DEMIRCI, B. on SCOPUS See more information about DEMIRCI, B. on SCOPUS See more information about DEMIRCI, B. on Web of Science
Click to see author's profile in See more information about the author on SCOPUS SCOPUS, See more information about the author on IEEE Xplore IEEE Xplore, See more information about the author on Web of Science Web of Science

Download PDF pdficon (1,291 KB) | Citation | Downloads: 388 | Views: 588

Author keywords
ciphers, chaos, data encapsulation, data security, digital images

References keywords
image(17), steganography(15), chaotic(11), hiding(10), steganographic(9), information(8), algorithm(8), communications(7), signal(5), security(5)
Blue keywords are present in both the references section and the paper title.

About this article
Date of Publication: 2018-08-31
Volume 18, Issue 3, Year 2018, On page(s): 15 - 22
ISSN: 1582-7445, e-ISSN: 1844-7600
Digital Object Identifier: 10.4316/AECE.2018.03003
Web of Science Accession Number: 000442420900003
SCOPUS ID: 85052105181

Quick view
Full text preview
Image steganography is a technique to hide secret information in an image without leaving any apparent evidence of image alteration. Hiding capacity, perceptual transparency, robustness, and resistance against attack must be considered as characteristics of the image steganography algorithms. In this study, Improved Chaos Based Bit Embedding has been proposed as a new steganography algorithm. It is based on two basic principles. One of them is determining the bits in which the secret data will be embedded by logistic map and the other one is embedding the secret data into only one of the three color channels that is chosen randomly. It distorts the other remaining channels so that it is harder to obtain the text within the image by an unwanted person. The proposed algorithm has been tested on 10 sample images along with the four basic steganography algorithms: Least Significant Bit Embedding, Pseudo Random Least Significant Bit Embedding, EzStego, and F5. It has been seen that generating unpredictable indexes by the chaotic random number generators, and embedding the secret data into only one of the three channels (distorting remaining channels) increased resistance against attacks. Perceptual transparencies and capacity ratio of the proposed algorithm are compatible with the other four algorithms.

References | Cited By  «-- Click to see who has cited this paper

[1] A. Beimel, "Secret-Sharing Schemes: A Survey," in Coding and Cryptology, 2011, pp. 11-46.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 198]

[2] A. Shamir, "How to Share a Secret," Commun. ACM, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612-613, Nov. 1979.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 4850] [SCOPUS Times Cited 6981]

[3] A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran, and P. Mc Kevitt, "Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods," Signal Processing, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 727-752, Mar. 2010.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 521] [SCOPUS Times Cited 800]

[4] C. Kurak and J. McHugh, "A cautionary note on image downgrading," in [1992] Proceedings Eighth Annual Computer Security Application Conference, 1992, pp. 153-159.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 73]

[5] I. S. Moskowitz, G. E. Longdon, and L. Chang, "A new paradigm hidden in steganography," in Proceedings of the 2000 workshop on New security paradigms, 2001, pp. 41-50.

[6] T. Sharp, "An Implementation of Key-Based Digital Signal Steganography," in Information Hiding, 2001, pp. 13-26.

[7] E. Kawaguchi and R. Eason, "Principle and applications of BPCS-Steganography," in Principle and applications of BPCS-Steganography, Boston,USA, 1998, vol. 3528, pp. 464-473.

[8] W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and A. Lu, "Techniques for data hiding," IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, no. 3.4, pp. 313-336, 1996.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 1159]

[9] I. S. Moskowitz and N. F. Johnson, "A detection study of an NRL steganographic method," NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, 2002.

[10] M. Noto, "MP3Stego: Hiding text in MP3 files," Sans Institute, p. 5, 2001.

[11] N. F. Johnson and S. Katzenbeisser, "A survey of steganographic techniques," in Information hiding, 2000, pp. 43-78.

[12] L. Zhi, S. A. Fen, and Y. Y. Xian, "A LSB steganography detection algorithm," in Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2003. PIMRC 2003. 14th IEEE Proceedings on, 2003, vol. 3, pp. 2780-2783.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 9] [SCOPUS Times Cited 20]

[13] Jessica Fridrich and Miroslav Goljan, "Digital image steganography using stochastic modulation," 2003, vol. 5020, pp. 5020-12.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 45] [SCOPUS Times Cited 89]

[14] R. O. El Safy, H. H. Zayed, and A. El Dessouki, "An adaptive steganographic technique based on integer wavelet transform," in 2009 International Conference on Networking and Media Convergence, 2009, pp. 111-117.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 60]

[15] C.-C. Chang, T.-S. Chen, and L.-Z. Chung, "A steganographic method based upon JPEG and quantization table modification," Information Sciences, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 123-138, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 177] [SCOPUS Times Cited 238]

[16] R. Chu, X. You, X. Kong, and X. Ba, "A DCT-based image steganographic method resisting statistical attacks," in Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings.(ICASSP'04). IEEE International Conference on, 2004, vol. 5, pp. V-953.

[17] M. Hussain and M. Hussain, "A survey of image steganography techniques," 2013.

[18] C.-K. Chan and L. M. Cheng, "Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution," Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 469-474, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 649] [SCOPUS Times Cited 954]

[19] Y. K. Lee and L. H. Chen, "High capacity image steganographic model," IEE Proceedings - Vision, Image and Signal Processing, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 288-294, Jun. 2000.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 179] [SCOPUS Times Cited 251]

[20] R.-Z. Wang, C.-F. Lin, and J.-C. Lin, "Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm," Pattern Recognition, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 671-683, Mar. 2001.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 397] [SCOPUS Times Cited 511]

[21] S.-H. Liu, T.-H. Chen, H.-X. Yao, and W. Gao, "A variable depth LSB data hiding technique in images," in Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2004. Proceedings of 2004 International Conference on, 2004, vol. 7, pp. 3990-3994.

[22] C. E. Shannon, "Communication theory of secrecy systems," The Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 656-715, Oct. 1949.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 4458]

[23] W. Wong, L. Lee, and K. Wong, "A Modified Chaotic Cryptographic Method," in Communications and Multimedia Security Issues of the New Century: IFIP TC6 / TC11 Fifth Joint Working Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security (CMS'01) May 21-22, 2001, Darmstadt, Germany, R. Steinmetz, J. Dittman, and M. Steinebach, Eds. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2001, pp. 123-126.

[24] A. Kanso and N. Smaoui, "Irregularly decimated chaotic map (s) for binary digits generations," International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, vol. 19, no. 04, pp. 1169-1183, 2009.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 15] [SCOPUS Times Cited 17]

[25] A. Kanso, H. Yahyaoui, and M. Almulla, "Keyed hash function based on a chaotic map," Information Sciences, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 249-264, 2012.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 42] [SCOPUS Times Cited 47]

[26] A. Kanso, "Self-shrinking chaotic stream ciphers," Communications in nonlinear science and numerical simulation, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 822-836, 2011.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 18] [SCOPUS Times Cited 24]

[27] X. Wu and Z.-H. Guan, "A novel digital watermark algorithm based on chaotic maps," Physics Letters A, vol. 365, no. 5-6, pp. 403-406, 2007.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 56] [SCOPUS Times Cited 77]

[28] S. Behnia, M. Teshnehlab, and P. Ayubi, "Multiple-watermarking scheme based on improved chaotic maps," Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2469-2478, Sep. 2010.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 18] [SCOPUS Times Cited 25]

[29] M. Keyvanpour and F. Merrikh-Bayat, "An Effective chaos-based image watermarking scheme using fractal coding," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 3, pp. 89-95, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 6] [SCOPUS Times Cited 8]

[30] L. Yu, Y. Zhao, R. Ni, and T. Li, "Improved Adaptive LSB Steganography Based on Chaos and Genetic Algorithm," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2010, no. 1, p. 876946, Jun. 2010.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 29] [SCOPUS Times Cited 26]

[31] A. Kanso and H. S. Own, "Steganographic algorithm based on a chaotic map," Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 3287-3302, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 15] [SCOPUS Times Cited 16]

[32] R. Roy, A. Sarkar, and S. Changder, "Chaos based Edge Adaptive Image Steganography," Procedia Technology, vol. 10, pp. 138-146, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 23]

[33] S. Ahadpour and M. Majidpour, "Image Steganography Using Discrete Cross-Coupled Chaotic Maps," 2013.

[34] M. Ghebleh and A. Kanso, "A robust chaotic algorithm for digital image steganography," Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1898-1907, Jun. 2014.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 41] [SCOPUS Times Cited 51]

[35] M. Y. Valandar, P. Ayubi, and M. J. Barani, "A new transform domain steganography based on modified logistic chaotic map for color images," Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 34, pp. 142-151, Jun. 2017.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 8] [SCOPUS Times Cited 13]

[36] G. Sathishkumar, D. N. Sriraam, and others, "Image encryption based on diffusion and multiple chaotic maps," arXiv preprint arXiv:1103.3792, 2011.

[37] B. Y. Ryabko, V. S. Stognienko, and Y. I. Shokin, "A new test for randomness and its application to some cryptographic problems," Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 365-376, Jul. 2004.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 19] [SCOPUS Times Cited 18]

[38] A. Westfeld and A. Pfitzmann, "Attacks on Steganographic Systems," in Information Hiding, 2000, pp. 61-76.

[39] Zhou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 600-612, Apr. 2004.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 12650] [SCOPUS Times Cited 15865]

[40] A. Hore and D. Ziou, "Image quality metrics: PSNR vs. SSIM" in 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010, pp 2366-2369
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 461]

[41] H. Gupta, R. Kumar and S. Changlani, "Enhanced data hiding capacity using LSB-based image steganography algorithm." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3(6), pp. 212-214, 2013

[42] N. P. Kamdar, D. G. Kamdar and D. N. Khandhar, "Performance evaluation of lsb based steganography for optimization of psnr and mse." Journal of information, knowledge and research in electronics and communication engineering, 2(2), pp. 505-509, 2013

[43] A. Westfeld, "F5-a steganographic algorithm", In International workshop on information hiding, vol 2137, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 289-302,

References Weight

Web of Science® Citations for all references: 20,926 TCR
SCOPUS® Citations for all references: 31,281 TCR

Web of Science® Average Citations per reference: 476 ACR
SCOPUS® Average Citations per reference: 711 ACR

TCR = Total Citations for References / ACR = Average Citations per Reference

We introduced in 2010 - for the first time in scientific publishing, the term "References Weight", as a quantitative indication of the quality ... Read more

Citations for references updated on 2019-08-22 13:28 in 259 seconds.

Note1: Web of Science® is a registered trademark of Clarivate Analytics.
Note2: SCOPUS® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.
Disclaimer: All queries to the respective databases were made by using the DOI record of every reference (where available). Due to technical problems beyond our control, the information is not always accurate. Please use the CrossRef link to visit the respective publisher site.

Copyright ©2001-2019
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania

All rights reserved: Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is a registered trademark of the Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, photocopied, recorded or archived, without the written permission from the Editor. When authors submit their papers for publication, they agree that the copyright for their article be transferred to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania, if and only if the articles are accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints and translations.

Permission for other use: The copyright owner's consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific written permission must be obtained from the Editor for such copying. Direct linking to files hosted on this website is strictly prohibited.

Disclaimer: Whilst every effort is made by the publishers and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions or statements appear in this journal, they wish to make it clear that all information and opinions formulated in the articles, as well as linguistic accuracy, are the sole responsibility of the author.

Website loading speed and performance optimization powered by: