Click to open the HelpDesk interface
AECE - Front page banner



JCR Impact Factor: 0.699
JCR 5-Year IF: 0.674
Issues per year: 4
Current issue: Feb 2019
Next issue: May 2019
Avg review time: 80 days


Stefan cel Mare
University of Suceava
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science
13, Universitatii Street
Suceava - 720229

Print ISSN: 1582-7445
Online ISSN: 1844-7600
WorldCat: 643243560
doi: 10.4316/AECE


2,211,940 unique visits
Since November 1, 2009

Robots online now


SCImago Journal & Country Rank

SEARCH ENGINES - Google Pagerank


Anycast DNS Hosting

 Volume 19 (2019)
     »   Issue 1 / 2019
 Volume 18 (2018)
     »   Issue 4 / 2018
     »   Issue 3 / 2018
     »   Issue 2 / 2018
     »   Issue 1 / 2018
 Volume 17 (2017)
     »   Issue 4 / 2017
     »   Issue 3 / 2017
     »   Issue 2 / 2017
     »   Issue 1 / 2017
 Volume 16 (2016)
     »   Issue 4 / 2016
     »   Issue 3 / 2016
     »   Issue 2 / 2016
     »   Issue 1 / 2016
 Volume 15 (2015)
     »   Issue 4 / 2015
     »   Issue 3 / 2015
     »   Issue 2 / 2015
     »   Issue 1 / 2015
  View all issues  


Clarivate Analytics published the InCites Journal Citations Report for 2017. The JCR Impact Factor of Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is 0.699, and the JCR 5-Year Impact Factor is 0.674.

Thomson Reuters published the Journal Citations Report for 2016. The JCR Impact Factor of Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is 0.595, and the JCR 5-Year Impact Factor is 0.661.

With new technologies, such as mobile communications, internet of things, and wide applications of social media, organizations generate a huge volume of data, much faster than several years ago. Big data, characterized by high volume, diversity and velocity, increasingly drives decision making and is changing the landscape of business intelligence, from governments to private organizations, from communities to individuals. Big data analytics that discover insights from evidences has a high demand for computing efficiency, knowledge discovery, problem solving, and event prediction. We dedicate a special section of Issue 4/2017 to Big Data. Prospective authors are asked to make the submissions for this section no later than the 31st of May 2017, placing "BigData - " before the paper title in OpenConf.

Read More »


  4/2016 - 6

A New Autofocusing Method Based on Brightness and Contrast for Color Cameras

SELEK, M. See more information about SELEK, M. on SCOPUS See more information about SELEK, M. on IEEExplore See more information about SELEK, M. on Web of Science
Click to see author's profile in See more information about the author on SCOPUS SCOPUS, See more information about the author on IEEE Xplore IEEE Xplore, See more information about the author on Web of Science Web of Science

Download PDF pdficon (1,516 KB) | Citation | Downloads: 319 | Views: 1,261

Author keywords
CCD image sensors, digital images, focusing, image color analysis, image processing

References keywords
focus(25), image(14), measure(10), auto(8), pattern(7), autofocus(7), algorithm(7), systems(6), recognition(6), optics(6)
Blue keywords are present in both the references section and the paper title.

About this article
Date of Publication: 2016-11-30
Volume 16, Issue 4, Year 2016, On page(s): 39 - 44
ISSN: 1582-7445, e-ISSN: 1844-7600
Digital Object Identifier: 10.4316/AECE.2016.04006
Web of Science Accession Number: 000390675900006
SCOPUS ID: 85007578320

Quick view
Full text preview
The autofocusing is one of the most important features of imaging devices. This feature directly affects the quality of the image taken by the imaging device. Currently, many studies are being performed to improve the feature of autofocusing. In this study, we propose a method for passive autofocusing of the color cameras. This method suggested is called as the Passive Autofocusing Based-Brightness and Contrast (PA Based-BC). According to this method, autofocusing is performed by identifying the brightness of the R, G and B color components of the RGB image and by focusing of the camera on the brightest color component. To this end, in this study, many experiments have been conducted. The analyses of these experiments show that the contrast-based focusing made depending on the brightness gives much better results. The use of this method upgrades the focusing accuracy of the color camera up to 95%.

References | Cited By  «-- Click to see who has cited this paper

[1] R. Benes, P. Dvorak, M. Faundez-Zanuy, V. Espinosa-Duró, J. Mekyska, "Multi-Focus Thermal Image Fusion," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 536-544, 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 10] [SCOPUS Times Cited 14]

[2] D. Wang, X. Ding, T. Zhang, H. Kuang, "A Fast Auto-Focusing Technique for the Long Focal Lens TDI CCD Camera in Remote Sensing Applications," Optics and Laser Technology, vol. 45, pp. 190-197, 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 9] [SCOPUS Times Cited 11]

[3] J. Kautsky, J. Flusser, B. Zitova, S. Simberova, "A New Wavelet-Based Measure of Image Focus," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 23, no. 14, pp. 1785-1794, 2002.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 96] [SCOPUS Times Cited 121]

[4] S. Wu, W. Lin, L. Jiang, W. Xiong, L. Chen, "An Objective Out-Of-Focus Blur Measurement," Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2005 Fifth International Conference on, pp. 334-338, 2005.

[5] S. Pertuz, D. Puig, M. A. Garcia, "Reliability Measure for Shape-From-Focus," Image and Vision Computing, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 725-734, 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 10] [SCOPUS Times Cited 10]

[6] C. Y. Chen, R. C. Hwang, Y. J. Chen, "A Passive Auto-Focus Camera Control System," Applied Soft Computing, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 296-303, 2010.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 44] [SCOPUS Times Cited 61]

[7] S. H. Jin, J. U. Cho, J. W. Jeon, "FPGA Based Passive Auto Focus System Using Adaptive Thresholding," in Proceedings of SICE-ICASE International Conference, pp. 2290-2295, 2006.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 8]

[8] J. Widjaja, S. Jutamulia, "Wavelet Transform-Based Autofocus Camera Systems," in Proceedings of The 1998 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, pp. 49-51, 1998.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 2]

[9] I. H. Lee, S. O. Shim, T. S. Choi, "Improving Focus Measurement via Variable Window Shape on Surface Radiance Distribution for 3D Shape Reconstruction," Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 520-526, 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 7] [SCOPUS Times Cited 8]

[10] E. Turgay, O. Teke, "Autofocus Method in Thermal Cameras Based on Image Histogram," 2011 IEEE Conference on 19th Signal Processing and Communications Applications, pp. 462-465, 2011.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 1]

[11] S. B. Roh, S. K. Oh, W. Pedrycz, K. Seo, "Development of Autofocusing Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Transforms," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 288, pp. 129-144, 2016.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 1] [SCOPUS Times Cited 1]

[12] C. Zhou, X. Hu, Y. Zhou, "An Induced Fluorescence Detecting System with Autofocus Electrically Tunable Len", IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 297-300, 2016.

[13] Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wen, "A New Focus Measure Method Using Moments," Image and Vision Computing, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 959-965, 2000.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 68] [SCOPUS Times Cited 81]

[14] M. Subbarao, J. K. Tyan, "Selecting the Optimal Focus Measure for Autofocusing and Depth-From-Focus," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 864-870, 1998.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 198] [SCOPUS Times Cited 266]

[15] W. Huang, Z. Jing, "Evaluation of Focus Measures in Multi-Focus Image Fusion," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 493-500, 2007.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 119] [SCOPUS Times Cited 340]

[16] L. Fan, F. Song, S. Jutamulia, "Edge Detection with Large Depth of Focus Using Differential Haar-Gaussian Wavelet Transform," Optics Communications, vol. 270, no. 2, pp. 169-175, 2007.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 6] [SCOPUS Times Cited 10]

[17] D. M. Tsai, C. C. Chou, "A Fast Focus Measure for Video Display Inspection," Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 192-196, 2003.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 7] [SCOPUS Times Cited 10]

[18] H. C. Chang, T. M. Shih, N. Z. Chen, N. W. Pu, "A Microscope System Based on Bevel-Axial Method Auto-Focus," Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 547-551, 2009.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 18] [SCOPUS Times Cited 26]

[19] M. Selek, "An Adaptive Squared Gradient Algorithm for Autofocusing of Thermal Cameras," International Journal of Innovative Computing Information and Control, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 841-849, 2013.

[20] I. Lee, M. T. Mahmood, T. S. Choi, "Adaptive Window Selection for 3D Shape Recovery from Image Focus," Optics and Laser Technology, vol.45, pp. 21-31, 2013.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 13] [SCOPUS Times Cited 16]

[21] M. G. Chun, S. G. Kong, "Focusing in Thermal Imagery Using Morphological Gradient Operator," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 38, pp. 20-25, 2014.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 2] [SCOPUS Times Cited 3]

[22] O. Lossona, L. Macairea, Y. Yanga, "Comparison of Color Demosaicing Methods," Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, vol. 162, pp. 173-265, 2010.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 29] [SCOPUS Times Cited 40]

[23] P. M. Hubel, J. Liu, R. J. Guttosch, "Spatial Frequency Response of Color Image Sensors: Bayer Color Filters and Foveon X3," Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial and Digital Photography Applications V Proc. SPIE, vol. 5301, pp. 402-407, 2004.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 30] [SCOPUS Times Cited 39]

[24] X. Li, B. Gunturk, L. Zhang, "Image Demosaicing: a Systematic Survey," Visual Communications and Image Processing Proceedings SPIE, vol. 6822, 2008.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 70] [SCOPUS Times Cited 220]

[25] Z. Sadeghipoor, Y.M. Lu, S. Süsstrunk, "Optimum Spectral Sensitivity Functions for Single Sensor Color Imaging," in Proceedings of SPIE Conference on Digital Photography VIII, vol. 8299, 2012.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 6] [SCOPUS Times Cited 17]

[26] X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, X. Liu, "Robust Automatic Focus Algorithm for Low Contrast Images Using a New Contrast Measure," Sensors, vol. 11, pp. 8281-8294, 2011.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 22] [SCOPUS Times Cited 25]

[27] S. Podlech, "Autofocus by Bayes Spectral Entropy Applied to Optical Microscopy," Microscopy and Microanalysis, pp. 1-9, 2016.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 2] [SCOPUS Times Cited 3]

[28] R. O. Panicker, B. Soman, G. Saini, J. Rajan, "A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images," Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 40, pp. 1-13, 2016.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 14] [SCOPUS Times Cited 17]

[29] X. Zhang, H. Wu, Y. Ma, "A New Auto-Focus Measure Based on Medium Frequency Discrete Cosine Transform Filtering and Discrete Cosine Transform," Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, vol. 40, pp. 430-437, 2016.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 8] [SCOPUS Times Cited 11]

[30] X. Zuojiang, H. Di, Z. Haibin, W. Liang, X. Zhigang, "Research on Automatic Focusing Technique Based on Image Autocollimation," Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol. 127, pp. 148-151, 2016.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 1] [SCOPUS Times Cited 3]

[31] B. Neumann, A. Dämon, D. Hogenkamp, E. Beckmann, J. Kollmann, "A Laser-Autofocus for Automatic Microscopy and Metrology," Sensors and Actuators, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 267-272, 1989.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 7] [SCOPUS Times Cited 8]

[32] N. Kehtarnavaz, H. J. Oh, "Development and Real-Time Implementation of A Rule-Based Auto-Focus Algorithm," Real-Time Imaging, vol. 9, pp. 197-203, 2003.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 86] [SCOPUS Times Cited 109]

[33] M. Gamadia, N. Kehtarnavaz, K. Roberts-Hoffman, "Low-Light Auto-Focus Enhancement for Digital and Cell-Phone Camera Image Pipelines," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 53, no. 2, 2007.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 20] [SCOPUS Times Cited 26]

[34] S. Y. Lee, J. T. Yoo, Y. Kumar, S. W. Kim, "Reduced Energy-Ratio Measure for Robust Autofocusing in Digital Camera," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 133-136, 2009.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 27] [SCOPUS Times Cited 37]

[35] H. D. Cheng, X. H. Jiang, Y. Sun, J. Wang, "Color Image Segmentation: Advances And Prospects," Pattern Recognition, vol. 34, pp. 2259-2281, 2001.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 838] [SCOPUS Times Cited 1110]

[36] F. C. A. Groen, I. T. Young, G. Ligthart, "A Comparison of Different Focus Functions for Use in Autofocus Algorithms," Cytometry, vol. 6, pp. 81-91, 1985.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 256] [SCOPUS Times Cited 342]

[37] J. W. Han, J. H. Kim, H. T. Lee, S. J. Ko, "A Novel Training Based Auto-Focus for Mobile-Phone Cameras," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 232-238, 2011.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 18]

[38] S.Y. Lee, Y. Kumar, J. M. Cho, S. W. Lee, S. W. Kim, "Enhanced Autofocus Algorithm Using Robust Focus Measure and Fuzzy Reasoning," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1237-1246, 2008.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 57] [SCOPUS Times Cited 76]

[39] J. Lee, K. Kim, B. Nam, "Implementation of a Passive Automatic Focusing Algorithm for Digital Still Camera," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 449-454, 1995.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 75] [SCOPUS Times Cited 95]

[40] Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, B. J. Nelson, "Autofocusing in Computer Microscopy: Selecting The Optimal Focus Algorithm," Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 139-149, 2004.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 230] [SCOPUS Times Cited 298]

[41] M. Kristan, J. Pers, M. Perse, S. Kovacic, "A Bayes-Spectral-Entropy-Based Measure of Camera Focus Using a Discrete Cosine Transform," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 27, pp. 1431-1439, 2006.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 62] [SCOPUS Times Cited 86]

References Weight

Web of Science® Citations for all references: 2,450 TCR
SCOPUS® Citations for all references: 3,567 TCR

Web of Science® Average Citations per reference: 58 ACR
SCOPUS® Average Citations per reference: 85 ACR

TCR = Total Citations for References / ACR = Average Citations per Reference

We introduced in 2010 - for the first time in scientific publishing, the term "References Weight", as a quantitative indication of the quality ... Read more

Citations for references updated on 2019-04-20 19:00 in 276 seconds.

Note1: Web of Science® is a registered trademark of Clarivate Analytics.
Note2: SCOPUS® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.
Disclaimer: All queries to the respective databases were made by using the DOI record of every reference (where available). Due to technical problems beyond our control, the information is not always accurate. Please use the CrossRef link to visit the respective publisher site.

Copyright ©2001-2019
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania

All rights reserved: Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering is a registered trademark of the Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, photocopied, recorded or archived, without the written permission from the Editor. When authors submit their papers for publication, they agree that the copyright for their article be transferred to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania, if and only if the articles are accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints and translations.

Permission for other use: The copyright owner's consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific written permission must be obtained from the Editor for such copying. Direct linking to files hosted on this website is strictly prohibited.

Disclaimer: Whilst every effort is made by the publishers and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions or statements appear in this journal, they wish to make it clear that all information and opinions formulated in the articles, as well as linguistic accuracy, are the sole responsibility of the author.

Website loading speed and performance optimization powered by: